Modest dehydration (1% of body weight) can result in diminished exercise capacity. Fluid losses resulting in a 2 – 3% decrease in body weight result in significant physiological stress with associated reductions in athletic performance.
The risk for dehydration and heat injury increases dramatic ally in hot, humid environments where the ambient temperature exceeds body temperature. During exercise , especially at high intensities and/or long durations in warm climates , significant amounts of water and sodium may be lost through sweat. In these conditions , which often include indoor training facilities, heat cannot be dissipated easily due to lower evaporation of sweat from the skin. Dehydration may also occur in cool or cold environments as a result of respiratory fluid losses and high sweat rates associated with multiple layers of clothing. Exertion at altitudes above 2500 m (8200 ft) may also compromise hydration status through mandatory diuresis and high respiratory water losses. Other risk factors include heavier body weight, genetic predisposition and acclimatization state. Sweat rates among athletes engaging in diverse types of summer training often range from 0.5 to 2 L/hr , although higher sweat rates are not uncommon. Body weight changes reflect sweat losses and can be measured during training to estimate fluid requirements on an individualized basis.
To optimize hydration during physical activity, experts recommend beverage s contain ing 4 – 8 % carbohydrates and 20 – 50 mmol/L sodium (120 – 170 mg/ 8 fl oz) . Simple sugars and sodium support the uptake of fluid from the digestive tract. Sodium helps to reduce urinary fluid losses and in combination with sugars, sustains the desire to drink. P referred form s of carbohydrate supported by clinical research include glucose , glucose polymers, dex trins , and fructose . A 6% carbohydrate solution is supported by ample research on athletes in a variety of settings and environments. Klean Hydration ™ is a 6% carbohydrate beverage comprised of simple carbohydrates (glucose and fructose ) and a complex carbohydrate (branched dextrin).
Klean Hydration ™ has an osmotic concentration, or osmolarity, that is similar to body fluids. Low osmolarity solutions are typically well – tolerated and support optimal hydration, whereas solutions with high osmolarity typically have a higher sugar and/or sodium content and are absorbed less readily . Specifically, higher osmotic concentrations reduce the rate of emptying of the stomach, impeding the mechanical transport of fluid through the gastrointestinal tract.
Sodium is an electrolyte that is vital to fluid balance . Sodium also encourages repeated consumption of a beverage by mitigating the attenuation of thirst that athletes often experience in the later stages of an endurance event. † Potassium is an other electrolyte that is located inside of cells and cooperates with sodium in many ways . Both sodium and potassium are necessary for the normal functioning of cells, nerves, and muscles. Magnesium is a mineral that is largely found in t he bones but plays roles in muscle function. Calcium is a mineral that can be lost in small amounts through sweat and urine. TRACCS ® calcium in Klean Hydration ™ is chelated for enhanced absorption.
Highly Branched Dextrins
Carbohydrates support the uptake of fluid from the intestine into the plasma while serving as a readily available energy source during aerobic or anaerobic efforts. A 6% carbohydrate solution typically has a high osmotic concentration. Complex carbohydrates facilitate the formulation of low – osmolarity solution s without sacrificing carbohydrate content . Cluster Dextrin ® has a lower molecular weight than typi cal long – chain starch molecules and contributes to the unique carbohydrate composition and low osmolarity.