Urolithin A is the main metabolite of ellagitannin-rich foods, such as pomegranates, black raspberries, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts and almonds. These polyphenol components are not absorbed intact into the bloodstream, but are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid in the gut, which is then metabolized by the gut microflora to form urolithin A and B. Research indicates that the ability to synthesize urolithins declines with age and depends on the gut microflora, and there is a small percentage of the population that is unable to perform this conversion at all. Research indicates that urolithin A enhances autophagy, the natural process of cellular renewal in which the body degrades and recycles cellular components, as well as mitophagy, the clearance and recycling of older and dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitochondria are the “powerhouses of the cell” and their function is fundamental to healthy aging. Efficient rejuvenation of mitochondria supports energy production and the overall health of cells. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving healthy sedentary elderly subjects indicated that supplementation with urolithin A promoted mitochondrial gene expression in the muscle and fatty acid oxidation efficacy, showing support for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Four weeks of urolithin A supplementation resulted in improved mitochondrial function comparable to a 10-week aerobic exercise regimen, as measured by decreases in plasma acylcarnitine. In animal research, urolithin A enhanced mitophagy to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and function during aging. It also improved endurance and exercise capacity in both young and age-related models of muscle decline. Supporting autophagy reduces oxidative stress and promotes healthy cytokine balance within the cells to support healthy aging. Preliminary research suggests a broad spectrum of support, including energy production, neuronal health and neurogenesis, gut barrier function, and healthy joint collagen. Urolithin A also may offer support for glucose and fat metabolism. When mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, supplementation with urolithin A promoted healthy insulin function and lipid metabolism, and decreased adipocyte size. These results are believed to be the result of increased expression of genes targeting fatty acid beta-oxidation, adipose tissue lipolysis and insulin receptor function (Sirt1), and oxidation defenses (SOD1 and SOD2). Sirt1 is also a target of resveratrol, thereby offering support for longevity, metabolic health, and mitochondrial function. CoQ10 is a key nutrient used in the energy production pathway.