Research suggests that vanadyl sulfate may have unique activity within a number of physiological systems including glucose, lipid and bone metabolism. The mechanism by which vanadyl sulfate influences various metabolic pathways is not fully understood. However, it is believed that the vanadyl ion, which is found in nearly all tissues in the body, is the active form of vanadium within cells. Vanadate, another vanadium ion that is found in body fluids, may be reduced by glutathione to the vanadyl form upon entering the cell. However, most studies investigating the effects of vanadyl have successfully used orally administered vanadyl sulfate.