Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that acts on hypothalamic brain cells, increasing hunger, gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body for food intake. Along with synthetic ghrelin mimetics, ghrelin increases body weight and fat mass by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus, including the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. Leptin, also a hormone, targets receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and to achieve energy homeostasis. If a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, the result may be an inability to detect satiety despite high-energy stores, which could possibly lead to obesity. Metabolism of intercellular fatty acids is initiated by the hormone adiponectin, which modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. These hormones can be inhibited by a chronic secretion of cortisol, especially when a loss of negative feedback in the HPA axis has occurred. Genes that control satiety and metabolic rate, particularly the ADIPOQ, LEPR, FTO, IRX3 and IRX5, PPAR gamma, and MC4R genes can be assessed to improve their gene expression by altering these hormones.
LOWAT® is a patent-pending, plant-based ingredient for healthy weight management. LOWAT® consists of Piper betle leaf and Dolichos biflorus seed extract, which have been traditionally used in Indian culture, to support lipolysis. Dolichos biflorus, also known as horse gram, decreases oxidative stress and supports healthy lipid and glucose metabolism. Piper betle is an ayuvedic herb used for blood sugar support and digestive health. The combination of the two herbs has also been clinically shown to boost adiponectin by 15% and reduce ghrelin by 17% to support healthy weight management and regulate appetite. Study results on LOWAT at 300 mg 3 times daily combined with diet and exercise showed significantly reduced body weight- 9.4 lbs. compared to 3.9 lbs., a loss 2.4 times greater than placebo at eight weeks- as well as an improved body mass index. Acetyl-L-carnitine is a necessary component for fatty acid metabolism and energy production. It is involved in fatty acid oxidation as a shuttle in the mitochondria for fatty acids to be utilized as an energy source.