Research has shown that an important factor in aging is the decay of the mitochondria, the organelles within the cell that convert amino acids, fatty acids and sugars into energy. Research performed by scientists and others has demonstrated that as we age, the efficiency of the mitochondria diminishes, as does their quantity per cell. The effect is a body operating at one-half to one-fourth the energy it had at youth. The brain is perhaps the most important organ affected by aging, since it consumes more energy than any other organ of the body. An energy deficit in the brain and central nervous system affects the activities of all organs throughout the body as well as mental acuity and mood. The combination of acetyl-l-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid and biotin has been clinically studied to support the mitochondrial function. The Juvenon® composition also activates the transport of nutrients into the mitochondria, where they are transformed into a specific chemical form of energy (ATP). This captured energy is used to run the cellular machinery for such activities as brain function and neurotransmission. Acetyl-L-carnitine contributes its acetyl group to the production of acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter for memory and thought. The enzyme that makes acetylcholine from acetyl groups and choline is choline acetyl transferase. The activity of this important enzyme has a tendency to decline with age, causing low acetylcholine levels which in turn are thought to contribute to the impairment of brain function that is associated with aging.
Research has also found that acetyl-L-carnitine is active in optimizing the functioning of cerebral blood flow, as well as of nerve cell membranes. Biotin is important for maintaining optimal levels of metabolites utilized for energy production in the mitochondria. The molecular structure of biotin is similar to that of alpha lipoic acid, one of the principal ingredients in Juvenon Pro Cognitive. As a consequence of this structural similarity, an excess of alpha lipoic acid can compete with or displace biotin from its cognate enzyme, according to experimental evidence from cell and animal studies. For this reason, biotin has been added to offset a potential imbalance. Alpha-GPC, also called alpha-glycerophophocholine, is thought to support memory and cognitive function because it increases plasma levels of choline, and therefore also increases production of acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine. Alpha-GPC is a precursor to membrane phospholipids. Therefore, alpha-GPC may help neuronal functioning by improving neuronal membrane fluidity. Human studies indicate that glycerophosphocholine may play important roles in maintaining neurological health.