Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar found in glycosoaminoglycans, integral components of the proteoglycans found in joint cartilage. Proteoglycans are large carbohydrate rich structures that provide resiliency, load distribution, shock-absorbing, compressive and lubricating properties to joints and connective tissues. The availability of glucosamine is an integral part of the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans that are necessary during the constant remodeling that aging cartilage undergoes. Thus, the maintenance of healthy aging cartilage may be improved with enhanced deposition of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Dietary glucosamine serves as an immediate precursor for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and also stimulates incorporation of other precursors into the connective tissue matrix. Bioavailability of oral glucosamine sulfate is excellent. It is absorbed intact, and utilized very quickly by all tissues, including connective tissues. Glucosamine sulfate is more efficiently used for connective tissue metabolism than other glucosamine sources, such as cartilage extracts or chondroitin sulfate. In summary, glucosamine sulfate is a well-recognized, highly effective source of glucosamine for glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan synthesis in all connective tissues, such as cartilage, ligaments, tendons, skin, and bone. MSM®, a derivative of DMSO, is a naturally occurring compound of biologically available sulfur, an indispensable element in human nutrition. As part of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, sulfur is required for the structural integrity and function of almost every protein in the body, as well as the glycosaminoglycans of cartilage and other connective tissue. Dietary MSM® serves as a versatile donor of metabolically active sulfur for the synthesis of numerous organosulfur compounds and proteins in the body. As such, MSM® helps maintain normal immune response, lung function, connective tissue metabolism, and muscle contraction. MSM® occurs naturally in a variety of foods, such as fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, milk, and fish.
However, MSM® is volatile and easily lost during cooking. MSM® is very well absorbed by the intestinal tract and rapidly distributed within the body. Bromelain, a protease from the pineapple plant, reduces the production of prostaglandins by modulating the arachidonate cascade. Its ability to modulate the body™s normal physiological processes may reduce the discomfort associated with aging joints. Proanthocyanidins, such as those found in red wine, are natural polyphenolic bioflavonoids that are widespread in nature and highly regarded for their strong antioxidant properties, as well as their functions in supporting the body™s connective tissues. They have been shown to bind with collagen fibers, thereby protecting from premature degradation. This helps maintain the natural elasticity of collagen in skin, joints, arteries, capillaries, and other connective tissues. Although vitamin C has numerous biological functions, foremost, it is essential for the synthesis of collagen which are the building materials of all connective tissues, such as joint cartilage, tendons, blood vessels, skin, and bone. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is the required coenzyme for two groups of enzymes that catalyze the cross linking of collagen fibers -lysyl hydroxylases and prolyl hydroxylases. Consequently, vitamin C is essential for the normal structure and function of connective tissue.